Types Of Trailers

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trailer_%28vehicle%29

Some trailers are made for personal (or small business) use with practically any powered vehicle having an appropriate hitch, but some trailers are part of large trucks called semi-trailer trucks for transportation of cargo.

Enclosed toy trailers and motorcycle trailers can be towed by commonly accessible pickup truck or van, which generally require no special permit beyond a regular driver’s license. Specialized trailers like open-air motorcycle trailers, bicycle trailers are much smaller, accessible to small automobiles, as are some simple trailers, pulled by a drawbar and riding on a single set of axles. Other trailers, such as utility trailers and travel trailers or campers come in single and multiple axle varieties, to allow for varying sizes of tow vehicles.

There also exist highly specialized trailers, such as genset trailers and their ilk that are also used to power the towing vehicle. Others are custom-built to hold entire kitchens and other specialized equipment used by carnival vendors. There are also trailers for hauling boats.

Travel trailer

Popup campers are lightweight, aerodynamic trailers that can be towed by a small car, such as the BMW Air Camper and the Coleman Bayside. They are built to be lower than the tow vehicle, minimizing drag.

Others range from two-axle campers that can be pulled by most mid-sized pickups to trailers that are as long as the host country’s law allows for drivers without special permits. Larger campers tend to be fully integrated recreational vehicles, which often are used to tow single-axle dolly trailers to allow the driver to bring small cars on their travels.

Semi-trailer

A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported either by a road tractor or by a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly. A semi-trailer is normally equipped with legs, called “landing gear”, which can be lowered to support it when it is uncoupled. A single trailer cannot exceed a length of 53 ft 0 in (16.15 m) on interstate highways (unless a special permit is granted) in the United States, however it is possible to link several trailers together.

They vary considerably in design, ranging from open-topped grain haulers through Tautliners to normal-looking but refrigerated 13 ft 0 in (3.96 m) x 53 ft 0 in (16.15 m) enclosures. Many semi-trailers are part of semi-trailer trucks.

Full-trailer

A full-trailer is the US term for a trailer supported by front and rear axles and pulled by a drawbar. In Europe this is known as an A-Frame drawbar trailer.

Close-coupled trailer

A close-coupled trailer is fitted with a rigid towbar which projects from its front and hooks onto a hook on the tractor. It does not pivot as a drawbar does.

Motorcycle trailer

A motorcycle trailer may be a trailer designed to haul motorcycles behind an automobile or truck. Such trailers may be open or enclosed, ranging in size from trailers capable of carrying several motorcycles or only one. They may be designed specifically to carry motorcycles, with ramps and tie-downs, or may be a utility trailer adapted permanently or occasionally to haul one or more motorcycles.

Another type of motorcycle trailer is a wheeled frame with a hitch system designed for transporting cargo by motorcycle. Motorcycle trailers are often narrow and styled to match the appearance of the motorcycle they are intended to be towed behind. You can get either two wheeled versions or single wheeled version. The single wheeled versions, such as the Unigo or Pav 40/41, are designed to allow the bike to have all the normal flexibility of a motorcycle, usually using a universal joint to enable the trailer to lean and turn with the motorcycle. No motorcycle manufacturer recommends that its motorcycles be used to tow a trailer because it creates additional safety hazards for motorcyclists.
Powered trailer mover

A powered trailer mover is a powered vehicle made to push and pull trailers that require lifting on one end before maneuvering. Some are also called trailer pushers or powered trailer pullers. The powered mover is capable of pushing and pulling an RV, a camper, an equipment trailer, or a boat.

The trailer mover was designed to prevent the strain usually associated with moving large trailered equipment.

Trailer winches

Trailer winches are designed to load (or unload) boats and other cargo to and from a trailer. The are made up of a ratchet mechanism and cable. The handle on the ratchet mechanism is turned to tighten or loosen the tension on the winch cable. There are both manual and motorized trailer winches.

Livestock trailer

There are a number of different styles of trailers used to haul livestock such as cattle and horses. The most common is the stock trailer, a trailer that is enclosed on the bottom, but has openings at approximately the eye level of the animals to allow ventilation. The horse trailer is a more elaborate form of stock trailer. Because horses are usually hauled for the purpose of competition or work, where they must be in peak physical condition, horse trailers are designed for the comfort and safety of the animals. They usually have adjustable vents and windows as well as suspension designed to provide a smooth ride and less stress on the animals. In addition, horse trailers have internal partitions that assist the animal in staying upright during travel and protect horses from injuring each other in transit. Larger horse trailers may incorporate additional storage areas for horse tack and may even include elaborate living quarters with sleeping areas, bathroom and cooking facilities, and other comforts.

Both stock trailers and horse trailers range in size from small units capable of holding one to three animals, able to be pulled by a pickup truck or even an SUV; to large semi-trailers that can haul a significant number of animals.

Semi-Trailer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-trailer

A semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported by a road tractor, by a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly, or by the tail of another trailer. A semi-trailer is normally equipped with landing gear (legs which can be lowered) to support it when it is uncoupled.

A road tractor coupled to a semi-trailer is often called a semi-trailer truck or semi, or in the UK an articulated lorry.

In Australian English, the tractor unit is usually referred to as a prime-mover; and the combination of a prime-mover and trailer is known as a semi-trailer or semi. Semi-trailers with two trailer units are B-Doubles or road trains. A B-double consists of a prime mover towing two semi-trailers, where the first semi-trailer is connected to the prime mover by a fifth wheel coupling and the second semi-trailer is connected to the first semi-trailer by a fifth wheel coupling. A road train means a combination, other than a B-Double, consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least two trailers (counting as a single trailer a converter dolly supporting a semi-trailer).

Semi-Trailer Types

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-trailer

Different types of semi-trailers are designed to haul different cargoes.

Common widths are 8 feet (2.44 m), and 2.6 metres (8 ft 6.4 in).

Box
The most common type of trailer. Also called a van trailer.
Standard lengths in North America are 28 ft 0 in (8.53 m), 32 ft 0 in (9.75 m), 34 ft 0 in (10.36 m), 36 ft 0 in (10.97 m), 40 ft 0 in (12.19 m), 45 ft 0 in (13.72 m), 48 ft 0 in (14.63 m) and 53 ft 0 in (16.15 m).

Bus
A bus bodied trailer hitched to a tractor unit to form a trailer bus, a simple alternative to building a rigid bus.

Car-carrying trailer
Carries multiple cars; usually new cars from the manufacturer. In the U.S., car carriers often carry used vehicles, as well.

Curtain sider
A curtain sider is similar to a box trailer except that the sides are movable curtains made of reinforced fabric coated with a waterproof coating. The purpose of a curtain sider is to allow the security and weather resistance of a box trailer with the ease of loading of a flatbed.

Drop-deck trailer
A drop-deck trailer is a trailer on which the floor drops down a level once clear of the tractor unit; the most common types of drop-deck trailer are flatbeds and curtain siders.

Double decker
Double deckers or deckers are trailers with either a fixed, hinged or moveable second floor to enable them to carry more palletised goods. In general a double decker can carry 40 pallets, as opposed to 26 for a standard trailer. Double deck trailers are generally a stepped box or curtain siders, with box trailers having either a fixed or movable (floating) deck, and curtain sides having either a fixed or hinged second deck; this hinged second deck generally swings into a position down the length of the trailer, and can be divided into 2 or 3 sections to allow greater load flexibility.

Dry Bulk
Resembles a big tanker, but is used for sugar, flour, and other dry powder materials.

Flatbed
Consists of just a load floor and removable side rails and a bulkhead in front to protect the tractor in the event of a load shift. Can haul almost anything that can be stacked on and strapped down.

Lowboy
Type of flatbed in which the load floor is as close to the ground as possible. Most commonly used to haul heavy equipment, cranes, bulldozers, etc.

Reefer – see Refrigerator truck
Box trailer with a heating/cooling unit (reefer) attached. Used for hauling produce, ice cream, etc.

Sidelifter
Semi-trailer with hydraulic cranes mounted at both ends of the chassis allowing for the loading and unloading of shipping containers without the need of a forklift or other container handling equipment.

Tanker – see Tank truck
Used for hauling liquids such as gasoline, milk, orange juice, and alcohol.

Frac
A type of tank trailer with a single and fixed axle, typically used during hydraulic fracturing at oil wells.

Intermodal freight use

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatcar#Intermodal_freight_use

COFC (container on flat car) cars are typically 89 feet (27.13 m) long and carry four 20-foot (6.10 m) intermodal containers or two 40-foot (12.19 m)/45-foot (13.72 m) shipping containers (the two 45-foot / 13.72 m containers are carryable due to the fact that the car is actually 92 ft (28.04 m) long, using the strike plates). With the rise of intermodal freight transport-specific cars, and given the age of most of these flats, numbers will decline over the next several years. Indeed, when the first well cars appeared, allowing double stacking, many container flats were re-built as autoracks. The few “new build” container flats are identifiable by their lack of decking, welded steel frame, and standard 89-foot length. One variant is the 50 feet (15.24 m) car (which usually carries one large container as a load); these are actually re-built old boxcars. Common reporting marks are FEC, CP, SOO and KTTX. The ATTX cars, which feature no spark grips and sides, are built for hauling dangerous goods (ammunition, flammable fluids, etc.).
Kansas City Southern Railway #8985, a flatcar seen in this May 29, 2004, photo, is fitted with fifth wheel coupling hitches for hauling trailers.

A TOFC (trailer on flat car, a.k.a. piggy-back) car once again, is usually an 89 ft car. In the past, these carried three 30 ft (9.14 m) trailers which are, as of 2007, almost obsolete, or one large, 53 ft (16.15 m), two 40-foot (12.19 m) or 45-foot (13.72 m) trailers. As intermodal traffic grows, these dedicated flats are in decline. Most have been modified to also carry containers. One notable type is Canadian Pacific Railway’s XTRX service — dedicated five-unit flats that only carry trailers.

Self Storage Today

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_storage#Self_storage_today

At year-end 2009, a total of some 50,000 self storage facilities, owned by 30,235 companies, have been developed in the United States on industrial and commercial land parcels. There is more than 2.35 billion square feet of self storage in the U.S., or a land area equivalent to three times Manhattan Island under roof. The five large publicly traded storage operators (four REITs and U-Haul) own or operate approximately 9% of self storage facilities. More recently, in many metropolitan cities where competition among storage companies is fierce, better parcels of land near residential and commercial areas are being converted into self-storage once approved by zoning panels.

Self storage businesses lease a variety of unit sizes to residential and business customer/tenants. Popular unit sizes include 10×5 (10 feet wide by 5 feet (1.5 m) deep) which is about the size of a large walk-in closet, 10×10 (the size of a child’s bedroom), 10×20 (one-car garage), 15×20 and 20×20 (two-car garage). The storage units are typically windowless, walled with corrugated metal, and lockable by the renter. Chain-link fencing or wire mesh may function as a more secure ceiling than a suspended ceiling. Each unit is usually accessed by opening a roll-up metal door, which is usually about the same size as a one-car garage door. A controlled access facility may employ security guards, surveillance cameras, individual unit door alarms and some means of electronic gate access such as a keypad or prox card. A few facilities even use biometric thumbprint or hand scanners to ensure that access is granted only to those that rent.

In rural and suburban areas most facilities contain multiple single-story buildings with mostly drive-up units having natural ventilation, but which are not climate-controlled. These buildings are referred to as “traditional”. Climate-controlled interior units are becoming more popular in suburban areas. In urban areas many facilities have multi-story buildings using elevators or freight lifts to move the goods to the upper floors. These facilities are often climate-controlled since they have mostly, if not all, interior units. Warehouses or grocery stores are sometimes converted into self storage facilities. Loading docks are sometimes provided on the ground floor. Also, complimentary rolling carts or moving dollies are sometimes provided to help the customers carry items to their units. Urban self storage facilities might contain only a few floors in a much larger building; there are successful self storage businesses cohabitating with light manufacturing, office tenants and even a public school.[citation needed]

According to the “Self Storage Demand Study – 2007” (published by the SSA) one in ten U.S. households now rent a self storage unit. The growing demand for self storage in the U.S. is created by people moving (some 40 million Americans move each year according to U.S. Census data), and by various lifestyle transitions, such as marriage, divorce, retirement, a death in the family, etc.

Customers are generally allowed to store any non-hazardous, non-toxic, non-perishable material in the facility: personal items, furniture, motorcycles, overstocked retail wares, etc. Customers are prohibited from sleeping or otherwise living in the room. If the customer fails to pay the rent, a lien is placed on the customer’s goods and they are sold at auction based on the provisions of that state’s lien law. The storage facility lien rights are codified in most states. The customer is still responsible for any rent and fees due if the auction does not clear their balance. (i.e. California Self-Service Storage Facility Act, Business & Professions code Sec 21700 et seq

The national Self Storage Association (SSA) was founded in 1975. The SSA represents some 6,000 companies in the United States that own, operate or manage some 22,000 facilities.

Intermediate bulk container – Shape & Dimensions

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermediate_bulk_container

There are many advantages of the IBC concept:

* They are generally cubic in form and therefore can transport more material in the same area than cylindrically shaped containers and far more than might be shipped in the same space if packaged in consumer quantities.
* They rely on plastic liners that can be filled and discharged with a variety of systems.
* The manufacturer/processor of a product can bulk package a product in one country and ship to many other countries at a reasonably low cost where it is subsequently packaged in final consumer form in accordance with the regulations of that country and in a form and language suitable for that country.

IBCs range in size but are generally between 700 and 2,000 mm (27.6 and 78.7 in) or 46 to 52 in (1,168 to 1,321 mm) in height. The length and width of an IBC is usually dependent on the pallet dimension standard of a given country.

IBCs may have pallet-like bases so that forklifts can move them.

It is common for IBCs to be able to fold down into a compact profile, reducing their height for transportation and storage when empty. IBCs in almost all cases can be stacked vertically.

Depending on the size of the IBC, it can weigh between 90 and 1,200 kg (198 and 2,646 lb).

Self Storage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self_storage

The term “self storage” is short for “self-service storage”, and is also known as “mini storage” or “mini warehouse” (archaic)1. . Self storage facilities lease space to individuals, usually storing household goods, or to small businesses, usually storing excess inventory or archived records. The rented spaces, known as “units”,”rooms” or “lockers” are secured by the tenant’s own lock and key. Facility operators do not have casual access to the contents of the space, unlike a professional warehouseman. A self storage operator never takes possession, care, custody or control of the contents of the storage rental space unless a lien is imposed for non-payment of rent. Self storage facility operators frequently provide controlled access to rental space areas, individual door alarms, interior units lights, and security cameras. Goods or items stored are either not insured by the self storage operator, or insured only to a minimal degree; possessions stored are at the tenant’s “own risk” or can be protected by tenant-purchased homeowner’s insurance or buy purchasing self storage tenant insurance.

Intermodal Freight Transport

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermodal_freight_transport

Intermodal freight transport involves the transportation of freight in an intermodal container or vehicle, using multiple modes of transportation (rail, ship, and truck), without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. The method reduces cargo handling, and so improves security, reduces damages and losses, and allows freight to be transported faster. Reduced costs versus over road trucking is the key benefit for intracontinental use. The negative is that it takes longer than normal truck delivery would.

Containers, also known as intermodal containers or ISO containers because the dimensions have been defined by ISO, are the main type of equipment used in intermodal transport, particularly when one of the modes of transportation is by ship. Containers are 8-foot (2.4 m) wide by 8-foot (2.4 m) high. Since introduction, there have been moves to adopt other heights, such as 8-foot-6-inch (2.59 m), 9-foot-6-inch (2.90 m) and 10-foot-6-inch (3.20 m). The most common lengths are 20 feet (6.1 m) nominal or 19 feet (5.8 m) – 10+1⁄2 in (0.27 m) actual, 40 feet (12 m), 48 feet (15 m) and 53 feet (16 m), although other lengths exist. They are made of steel and can be stacked atop one another (a popular term for a two-high stack is “double stack”).

Onboard ships they are typically stacked up to seven units high. They can be carried by truck, rail, container ship, or aeroplane. When carried by rail, containers can be loaded on flatcars or in container well cars. In Europe, stricter railway height restrictions (smaller loading gauge and structure gauge) and overhead electrification prevent containers from being stacked two high, and containers are hauled one high either on standard flatcars or other railroad cars. Taller containers are often carried in well cars (not stacked) on older European railway routes where the loading gauge is particularly small.

Some variations on the standard container exist. Open-topped versions covered by a fabric curtain are used to transport larger loads. A container called a tanktainer, with a tank inside a standard container frame, carries liquids. Refrigerated containers are used for perishables. There is also the swap body, which is typically used for road and rail transport. Built too lightly to be stacked, they have folding legs under their frame so that they can be moved between trucks without using a crane.

Various non-standard container forms are commonly used. These include non-stackable open box containers, and several slightly non-standard geometries. European containers are often about two inches wider than the ISO standard although otherwise conformant, which can carry the euro-pallet standard pallet load. Specialised containers used in Europe include containerised coal carriers, and recently “bin-liners” – containers designed for the efficient road/rail transportation of rubbish from cities to recycling and dump sites.

In countries where the loading gauge is sufficient, truck trailers are often used for freight that is transported primarily by road and rail. Typically, regular semi-trailers can be used, and do not need to be specially designed.

Intermodal Container

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermodal_freight_shipping_container

Container
A "40-foot (12.19 m)" long shipping container. Each of the eight corners has a simple "twistlock" fitting for stacking, locking and craning

An intermodal container or freight container (commonly shipping container) is a reusable transport and storage unit for moving products and raw materials between locations or countries; the terms container or box may be used on their own within the context of shipping. Containers manufactured to ISO specifications may be referred to as ISO containers and the term high-cube container is used for units that are taller than normal. There are approximately seventeen million intermodal containers in the world and a large proportion of the world’s long distance freight generated by international trade is transported inside shipping containers (as opposed to break bulk cargo).

The containerization system developed from a design of an 8-foot (2.438 m) cube units used by the United States’ military and later standardised by extension to 10-foot (3.05 m), 20-foot (6.10 m), and 40-foot (12.19 m) lengths. Longer, higher and wider variants are now in general use in various places.

Container variants are available for many different cargo types. Non-container methods of transport include bulk cargo, break bulk cargo and tankers/oil tankers used for liquids. For air freight the alternative and lighter IATA defined Unit Load Device is used.

A typical container has doors fitted at one end, and is constructed of corrugated weathering steel. Containers were originally 8 feet (2.44 m) wide by 8 feet (2.44 m) high, and either a nominal 20 feet (6.10 m) or 40 feet (12.19 m) long. They could be stacked up to seven units high.

Taller units have been introduced, including ‘hi-cube’ or ‘high-cube’ units at 9 feet 6 inches (2.90 m) and 10 feet 6 inches (3.20 m) high.

The United States often uses longer units at 48 ft (14.63 m) and 53 ft (16.15 m). Some rare European containers are often about 2 inches wider at 2.5 m (8 ft 2.4 in) to accommodate Euro-pallets. Australian RACE containers are also slightly wider to accommodate Australia Standard Pallets.

Lighter swap body units use the same mounting fixings as Intermodal containers, but have folding legs under their frame so that they can be moved between trucks without using a crane.

Each container is allocated a standardized ISO 6346 reporting mark (ownership code), four characters long ending in either U, J or Z, followed by six numbers and a check digit.

Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu). An equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) container. As this is an approximate measure, the height of the box is not considered; for example, the 9 ft 6 in (2.90 m) high cube and the 4-foot-3-inch (1.30 m) half height 20-foot (6.10 m) containers are also called one TEU. Similarly, the 45 ft (13.72 m) containers are also commonly designated as two TEU, although they are 45 and not 40 feet (12.19 m) long. Two TEU are equivalent to one forty-foot equivalent unit (FEU).

Variations on the standard container exist for use with different cargoes including Refrigerated container units for perishable goods, tanks in a frame for bulk liquids, open top units for top loading and collapsable versions. Containerised coal carriers, and ‘bin-liners’ (containers designed for the efficient road/rail transportation of rubbish from cities to recycling and dump sites) are used in Europe.

Container types:
* Collapsible ISO
* Flushfolding flat-rack containers for heavy and bulky semi-finished goods, out of gauge cargo
* Gas bottle
* Generator
* General purpose dry van for boxes, cartons, cases, sacks, bales, pallets, drums in standard, high or half height
* High cube palletwide containers for europallet compatibility
* Insulated shipping container
* Refrigerated containers for perishable goods
* Open top bulktainers for bulk minerals, heavy machinery
* Open side for loading oversize pallet
* Platform or bolster for barrels and drums, crates, cable drums, out of gauge cargo, machinery, and processed timber
* Rolling floor for difficult to handle cargo
* Swapbody
* Tank containers for bulk liquids and dangerous goods
* Ventilated containers for organic products requiring ventilation

Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-foot_equivalent_unit

The twenty-foot equivalent unit (often TEU or teu) is an inexact unit of cargo capacity often used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals. It is based on the volume of a 20-foot long intermodal container, a standard-sized metal box which can be easily transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships, trains and trucks.

One TEU represents the cargo capacity of a standard intermodal container, 20 feet (6.1 m) long and 8 feet (2.4 m) wide. There is a lack of standardisation in regards to height, ranging between 4.25 and 9.5 feet (1.30 and 2.9 m), with the most common height being 8.5 feet (2.6 m). Also, it is common to designate 45-foot (14 m) containers as 2 TEU, rather than 2.25 TEU.

Equivalence

As noted above, the TEU is an inexact unit, and hence cannot be converted precisely into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit (often FEU or feu) however is defined as two TEU. The most common dimensions for a 20-foot (6.1 m) container are 20 feet (6.1 m) long, 8 feet (2.4 m) wide, and 8.5 feet (2.6 m) high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet (39 m3). However, both 9.5 feet (2.9 m) tall High cube and 4.25 feet (1.30 m) half height containers are also reckoned as 1 TEU. This gives a volume range of 680 cubic feet (19 m3) to 1,520 cubic feet (43 m3) for one TEU.

While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the maximum mass that a TEU can represent. The maximum gross mass for a 20-foot (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms (53,000 lb). Subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to approximately 21,600 kilograms (48,000 lb).

Similarly, the maximum gross mass for a 40-foot (12 m) dry cargo container (including the 9.5 feet (2.9 m) high cube container) is 30,480 kilograms (67,200 lb). After correcting for tare weight, this gives a cargo capacity of 26,500 kilograms (58,000 lb).

Twenty-foot, “heavy tested” containers are available for heavy goods such as heavy machinery. These containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds (30,500 kg), an empty weight of 5,290 pounds (2,400 kg), and a net load of 61,910 pounds (28,080 kg).